Common Problems and Solutions to Eco Textiles.

Good knowledge on the source of harmful material, it’s characteristics and solution to its related problems


♦ Dyes is being identified

:  The source of cleavable azo dyes.

:   The source of emission of heavy metal

:  The source of allergic dyes.


♦ The cause of cleavable Azo.

♦ Binder—Formaldehyde

♦ Fixing improver —- P.V.C.

- Turpentine (organic solvent)

Choice of auxiliaries

♦ Biodegradable

♦ No residue of harmful substance

♦ Supplier should have sufficient professional knowledge

The using of resin

♦ Formaldehyde residue

♦ Low formaldehyde——–DMDHEU

- Fixapret CL, CM.ECO. CNR.

♦ Formaldehyde Free——-Fixapret NF, Ciba-Knittex FLC conc. / FELSH-Xin LI SPD-I & SPD-II

Beware of PVC

♦ Coating – Polyurethane, Polyethlyene.

♦ Flocking – Appreraan 760H

Chlorinated solvent

♦ As carrier for low temp. dyeing of polyester

♦ Emission of volatile gas.  Also applies for dry cleaning and as oil remover component


♦ Tin compound seldom applied in textile processing except sometime use for discharged and burnt printing

♦ Organotin is mostly applied in varnish as antirust component

Be careful to use flame Retardant

♦ Antimony  (Sb) and Bromine (Br) is not allowed

How important of pH value? 

♦       Sensitive to skin, particular for children.

♦     Influence the fabric tenacity.

♦   Affect the color fastness.

♦ Na2CO3                Sodium Carbonate

♦CO(NH2)2   Urea

♦(NH4)2SO4  Ammonium Sulphate 10% =4.5

♦NH4CL                Ammonium Chloride

♦CH3COOH   Acetic Acid 0.5%= 4.5

Where does formaldehyde come from?

♦ Fixing agent, binder, resins finishing.

♦ HCHO, water soluble, is a fungicide.

Prevent fabric tendering

♦ Cause: Sulphur dyes, over bleaching, over enzyme wash, resins finishing damage.

♦ Improvement: Urea, Sodium bisulphite, Soda Ash,

Improvement of washing property

♦ Cause: Improper washing, weak strength of fixing agent.  Improper finishing.

♦ Improvement : Re-washing and fixing again.

♦ Tinegal W  Ciba or Avlon IW  Bayer    Anti precipitant/ Dispersing agent

♦                      Soda Ash                 Tri-sodium phosphate

♦                     Tinofix ECO     Ciba  or Sandofix FFN liq.  (Co)

♦                    Alcofix SX       Ciba  or Nylofixan PM liq.   (Pa)

Light fastness property

♦ – is mainly dominated by the dyes, sometime may be lower it nature due to man cause. In market there has some auxiliaries can improve the light fastness with a high costing.

♦ Cause: Suitable selection of dyes is the best way, improperly processes also reduce the dyes’ property.

♦ Improvement :

♦ Tinofast    : Cotton

♦ Cibatex     : Polyester

♦ Fadex F liq.    : Polyester

♦ Cibafast  APS    : Wool

♦ Lanalbin APB liq.   : Wool

♦ Cibafast N-2    : Nylon


♦ Selection of the brightener is very important, the pH value of fabric is also the main cause.

Improvement : Cibafast CT               : for cotton

Lanalbin APB liq.                                : for wool

Polyester and it’s blend

♦ The rubbing fastness is always a big problem, the sublimation property of disperse dyes is troublesome.

♦ Improvement auxiliaries : High temperature fixing improver    Printtogen Liq. Conc.

Irgasol DAM                                   Ciba

Tinegal W                                         Ciba

Avlon I W                                           Bayer

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