What is yarn & Spinning? History, Introduction & classification of yarn & How to maintain yarn quality?

Yarn is assembly of fine strands of fibers being twisted to gather in order to make it suitable for further process as weaving .The essential requirement in producing the yarn from staple fiber is to make the fiber hold together by twisting to gather. In staple fiber yarn, it is not necessary bring about not only lateral cohesion as in the filament yarn in order to stop fiber peeling off the outer edges of the yarn, but the filament achieves the strength along. There are various processes involved in producing the yarn but twisting processes is a most famous processes widely used in the industries. Yarn achieves required fineness when the fiber are twisted and made into yarn before twisting manually however produces this yarn; intensive research in this area began after invention of card engine. Many spinning technique were to convert fiber into yarn. Some of them remained common such as the Ring and Rotor. The production of Ring and rotor yarn have great share in world market.

All the process=involved in the conversion of fibers into yarn can briefly be described as Spinning.

History and Introduction:
Producing yarn by twisting is a process that is more than ten thousand years old. In the beginning, the fibers were twisted by hand and made into a yarn. However, intensive research in this area began after the invention of the card engine. Many spinning techniques were invented to convert fibers into yarn. Some of them remained common such as ring spinning and others were not given importance. Even in the 21st century, when many other methods are by which yarn can be produced, yarn production by twisting has prime importance. There are two major techniques of yarn spinning, the first is one by which the two consecutive operations of twisting and winding are carried out with the same unit or spindle, like ring spinning systems, the second is one by which the two operations are performed separately as with open-end spinning system.

Ring Spun Yarn:
The yarn made on a Ring frame is called as a Ring spun yarn. The ring spun yarn is the most oldest and comparatively one of the best way for producing a yarn. The yarn produced from a ring frame has good desirable properties such as strength, evenness, fineness, which is ultimately make this yarn able to compete against yarn produced by other methods.
Ring spun yarn is produced by insertion of twist in a roving which is drafted between sets of rollers and then given it a twist between a spindle and a traveler on a ring. While the amount of twist, determines almost all the properties of yarn produced.

Carded Yarn:
The carding process forms a card sliver made of the longest fibers, which in turn have produces a yarn with properties such as better yarn evenness, strength, cleanness, smoothness and visual appearance, when compared to a carded yarn using the same material.

In addition a yarn made of carded cotton needs less twist then a carded yarn however these qualities improvements are obtained at the cost of additional expenditure on machine, floor space and personnel, together with a loss of raw material and also improve the quality.

Yarn Quality:
Yarn quality determines the usability of the yarn for the next processes such as weaving, as without it, the next processes are impossible to implement. Quality of the yarn may define the properties and the characteristics of the yarn for its end user requirements; yarn quality is very most important task to investigate because it defines the physical and mechanical behavior of the yarn in later process and end use. Yarn quality can deteriorate, if parameters such as of raw material or machine settings are not properly calibrated or maintained.
All of the necessary tests are done in a good maintained textile testing lab, with all the necessary equipments. As a result, quality control is maintained to the standards.

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